TRUSTEESHIP AGREEMENT
FOR THE FORMER
JAPANESE MANDATED ISLANDS

Preamble

     WHEREAS Article 75 of the Charter of the United Nations provides for the establishment of an international trusteeship system for the administration and supervision of such territories as may be placed thereunder by subsequent agreement; and

     WHEREAS under Article 77 of the said Charter the trusteeship system may be applied to territories now held under mandate; and

     WHEREAS on 17 December 1920 the Council of the League of Nations confirmed a mandate for the former German Islands north of the equator to Japan, to be administered in accordance with Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations; and

     WHEREAS Japan, as a result of the Second World War, has ceased to exercise any authority in these islands;

     NOW THEREFORE, the Security Council of the United Nations, having satisfied itself that the relevant articles of the Charter have been complied with, hereby resolves to approve the following terms of trusteeship for the Pacific Islands formerly under mandate to Japan.


Article 1

     The Territory of the Pacific Islands, consisting of the islands formerly held by Japan under mandate in accordance with Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, is hereby designated as a strategic area and placed under the trusteeship system established in the Charter of the United Nations.  The Territory of the Pacific Islands is hereinafter referred to as the trust territory.

Article 2

     The United States of America is designated as the administering authority of the trust territory.

Article 3

     The administering authority shall have full powers of administration, legislation, and jurisdiction over the territory subject to the provisions of this agreement, and may apply to the trust territory, subject to any modifications which the administering authority may consider desirable such of the laws of the United States as it may deem appropriate to local conditions and requirements.

Article 4

     The administering authority, in discharging the obligations of trusteeship in the trust territory, shall act in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, and the provisions of this agreement, and shall, as specified in Article 83(2) of the Charter, apply the objectives of the international trusteeship system, as set forth in Article 76 of the Charter, to the people of the trust territory.

Article 5

     In discharging its obligations under Article 76(a) and Article 84, of the Charter, the administering authority shall ensure that the trust territory shall play its part, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, in the maintenance of international peace and security.  To this end the administering authority shall be entitled:

     1.  to establish naval, military and air bases and to erect fortifications in the trust territory;

     2.  to station and employ armed forces in the territory; and

     3.  to make use of volunteer forces, facilities and assistance from the trust territory in carrying out the obligations towards the Security Council undertaken in this regard by the administering authority, as well as for the local defense and the maintenance of law and order within the trust territory.

Article 6

     In discharging its obligations under Article 76(b) of the Charter, the administering authority shall:

     1.  foster the development of such political institutions as are suited to the trust territory and shall promote the development of the inhabitants of the trust territory toward self-government or independence as may be appropriate to the particular circumstances of the trust territory and its peoples and the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned; and to this end shall give to the inhabitants of the trust territory a progressively increasing share in the administrative services in the territory; shall develop their participation in government; and give due recognition to the customs of the inhabitants in providing a system of law for the territory; and shall take other appropriate measures toward these ends;

     2.  promote the economic advancement and self-sufficiency of the inhabitants, and to this end shall regulate the use of natural resources; encourage the development of fisheries, agriculture, and industries; protect the inhabitants against the loss of their lands and resources; and improve the means of transportation and communication;

     3.  promote the social advancement of the inhabitants and to this end shall protect the rights and fundamental freedoms of all elements of the population without discrimination; protect the health of the inhabitants; control the traffic in arms and ammunition, opium and other dangerous drugs, and alcoholic and other spirituous beverages; and institute such other regulations as may be necessary to protect the inhabitants against social abuses; and

     4.  promote the educational advancement of the inhabitants, and to this end shall take steps toward the establishment of a general system of elementary education; facilitate the vocational and cultural advancement of the population; and shall encourage qualified students to pursue higher education, including training on the professional level.

Article 7

     In discharging its obligations under Article 76(c), of the Charter, the administering authority shall guarantee to the inhabitants of the trust territory freedom of conscience, and, subject only to the requirements of public order and security, freedom of speech, of the press, and of assembly; freedom of worship, and of religious teaching; and freedom of migration and movement.

Article 8

     1.  In discharging its obligations under Article 76(d) of the Charter, as defined by Article 83(2) of the Charter, the administering authority, subject to the requirements of security, and the obligation to promote the advancement of the inhabitants, shall accord to nationals of each Member of the United Nations and to companies and associations organized in conformity with the laws of such Member, treatment in the trust territory no less favourable than that accorded therein to nationals, companies and associations of any other United Nation except the administering authority.

     2.  The administering authority shall ensure equal treatment to the Members of the United Nations and their nationals in the administration of justice.

     3.  Nothing in this Article shall be so construed as to accord traffic rights to aircraft flying into and out of the trust territory.  Such rights shall be subject to agreement between the administering authority and the state whose nationality such aircraft possesses.

     4.  The administering authority may negotiate and conclude commercial and other treaties and agreements with Members of the United Nations and other states, designed to attain for the inhabitants of the trust territory treatment by the Members of the United Nations and other states no less favourable than that granted by them to the nationals of other states.  The Security Council may recommend, or invite other organs of the United Nations to consider and recommend what rights the inhabitants of the trust territory should acquire in consideration of the rights obtained by Members of the United Nations in the trust territory.

Article 9

     The administering authority shall be entitled to constitute the trust territory into a customs, fiscal, or administrative union or federation with other territories under United States jurisdiction and to establish common services between such territories and the trust territory where such measures are not inconsistent with the basic objectives of the International Trusteeship System and with the terms of this agreement.

Article 10

     The administering authority, acting under the provisions of Article 3 of this agreement, may accept membership in any regional advisory commission, regional authority, or technical organization, or other voluntary association of states, may cooperate with specialized international bodies, public or private, and may engage in other forms of international cooperation.

Article 11

     1.  The administering authority shall take the necessary steps to provide the status of citizenship of the trust territory for the inhabitants of the trust territory.

     2.  The administering authority shall afford diplomatic and consular protection to inhabitants of the trust territory when outside the territorial limits of the trust territory or of the territory of the administering authority.

Article 12

     The administering authority shall enact such legislation as may be necessary to place the provisions of this agreement in effect in the trust territory.

Article 13

     The provisions of Articles 87 and 88 of the Charter shall be applicable to the trust territory, provided that the administering authority may determine the extent of their applicability to any areas which may from time to time be specified by it as closed for security reasons.

Article 14

     The administering authority undertakes to apply in the trust territory the provisions of any international conventions and recommendations which may be appropriate to the particular circumstances of the trust territory and which would be conducive to the achievement of the basic objectives of Article 6 of this agreement.

Article 15

     The terms of the present agreement shall not be altered, amended or terminated without the consent of the administering authority.

Article 16

     The present agreement shall come into force when approved by the Security Council of the United Nations and by the Government of the United States after due constitutional process.

Editorís note:  This Trusteeship Agreement was approved by the United Nations Security Council on April 2, 1947 and ratified by the United States on July 18, 1947 by the following Congressional Joint Resolution (Act of July 18, 1947, c. 271, 61 Stat. 397):

CONGRESSIONAL JOINT RESOLUTION
(July 18, 1947)

     Whereas the United States submitted to the Security Council of the United Nations for its approval in accordance with Article 83 of the Charter of the United Nations a proposed trusteeship agreement for the Pacific Islands formerly mandated to Japan under which the United States would be prepared to administer those islands under trusteeship in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations; and
     Whereas the Security Council on April 2, 1947, approved unanimously the trusteeship agreement with amendments acceptable to the United States; and
     Whereas the said agreement, having been approved by the Security Council, will come into force upon approval by the Government of the United States after due constitutional process; Therefore be it
     Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the President is hereby authorized to approve, on behalf of the United States, the trusteeship agreement between the United States of America and the Security Council of the United Nations for the former Japanese mandated islands (to be known as the Territory  of the Pacific Islands) which was approved by the Security Council at the seat of the United Nations, Lake Success, Nassau County, New York, on April 2, 1947.
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